Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Human Being And Universe Diversified And Unique From...

In general, people are the most intelligent specie in the universe as they have the abilities to understand the symbolic interaction and the differences that make them unfamiliar with others. Simply speaking, children are inherited the similarities from their parents such as blood type, physical characteristics, and personality. However, they are not completely and totally inherited everything from their parents. A young teenager may develop any kind of identifying characteristics that he is taught or is impacted through the actions of adults and peers. For instance, he must comply the rules from his parents and play video games for hours. This is one of the major factors that makes the human being and universe diversified and unique from other animal species. The differences and resemblances of a human generation can be founded in any aspects of the society from different ages such as in education between high school and college students. There is an important transformation that re quires high school students to adapt new information in order to become adults when they go to college. Although college and high school students are both learners, they have many variables that set them apart. Different from high school students, undergrads must manage their finance intelligently due to the essential expenses that they need to pay for. To demonstrate, college is not free like public high school and its tuition is extremely expensive. Two years college like Houston CommunityShow MoreRelatedDarwin s Theory On Evolution1018 Words   |  5 PagesDarwin’s theory on Evolution Evolution is the belief that all living forms including humans came from ancient ancestors. Evolution is what makes life possible. It allows organisms to adapt to the environment as it changes. In Biology, theory of evolution does not tell us how life began on earth, but it helps us understand how life came into existence, diversified in many forms on earth, and fossil records. Scientists have many theories on evolution. One of the theories suggests all the healthyRead MoreEvolution Vs Creation Vs Evolution1395 Words   |  6 Pagesspecies until we came upon the human being. Hebrews 11:1 says that faith is, â€Å"the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen† (Mocanu, Creation is Faith, Evolution is Science). But as was stated also by Florin Mocanu from his article Creation is Faith, Evolution is Science, â€Å"by faith we understand that the universe was formed in a Big Bang, so that what is seen was not made out of what was visible; by faith we re alise that the universe made itself from nothing†(Mocanu, CreationRead MorePhilosophical Basis of Education6031 Words   |  25 Pagesschools of philosophy on above concepts, this unit will also incorporate the views of both Western as well as Indian thinkers. PHILOSOPHY, EDUCATION AND THEIR INTER-DEPENDENCE The inter-dependence of philosophy and education is clearly seen from the fact that the great philosphers of all times have also been great educators and their philosophy is reflected in their educational systems. This inter-dependence can be better understood by analysing the implications of philosophical principlesRead MoreStrategy Integration - Vermont Teddy Bear7515 Words   |  31 Pagesthe universe get personal, have fun, keep promises and stay rooted in Vermont. The analysis of VTB’s environment shows the company in a saturated industry with many rivals. There are also many substitutes for its products and few barriers to entry keeping out competitors. These reasons make the industry unattractive. However, VTB has some core competencies, which give the company an SCA. These core competencies include: branding, operational efficiencies, mass customization, and a unique direct Read MoreStrategy and Society9783 Words   |  40 Pagesaffect your competitiveness? For instance, do countries where you operate protect intellectual property? Supply enough talented workers? Encourage outside investors? 2. Select social issues to address. Given your company’s and society’s impact on each other, how might you address social needs in ways that create shared value—a meaningful benefit for society that also adds to your company’s bottom line? Example: By addressing the AIDS pandemic in Africa, a mining company such as Anglo American would notRead MoreGp Essay Mainpoints24643 Words   |  99 PagesUniversal language 11. Businesses a. Business morality b. Charities as businesses 12. Democracy a. Good vs. Bad 13. Social Issues (only stats provided) a. Gender b. Family c. Equality 14. Governance a. World Governance 15. Others a. Cooperation b. Education c. Crime d. Liberty or Security e. Consumerism 1. Media 1a. New vs. Traditional GENERAL Intro: †¢ The first quarter of 2043 will be when the last newspapers land on front process all over America. ThisRead MoreAn Article On Earth Essay10094 Words   |  41 Pages This is a featured article. Click here for more information. Page semi-protected Listen to this article Earth From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the planet. For other uses, see Earth (disambiguation). Earth Astronomical symbol of Earth The Blue Marble photograph of Earth, taken by the Apollo 17 lunar mission. The Arabian peninsula, Africa and Madagascar lie in the upper half of the disc, while Antarctica is at the bottom. The Blue Marble photograph of Earth, taken duringRead MoreInternship Report on Milkvita14316 Words   |  58 Pagesappropriate factors in their business. Neither the new entrepreneur fell safe in putting money for new businesses, nor did the existing business houses fall encouraged to expand their business in diversified ways just at the juncture of period to the new global market pattern. This is because of apprehended competition from the world marketers or entrepreneurs like multinationals to be encountered by the national business arena. In addition, it has also been experienced in Bangladesh that there exist theRead MoreInternational Management67196 Words   |  269 Pagespart of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on recycled, acid-free paper containingRead MoreA Descriptive Study of the Practice of Music Therapy in Hong Kong17388 Words   |  70 Pages5 12 CHAPTER II Music Therapy as a Professional Career Music Therapists working in Hong Kong Organizations Providing Music Therapy Service Main Population of Clients and Locations of Service Delivery Literature on Music Therapy Requirements of being a Music Therapist Certification/ Licensing 16 16 18 21 23 25 27 29 CHAPTER III Establishing a Music Therapy Practice Goals of Music Therapy Selected Music Therapy Techniques Use of Music in a Music Therapy Session 30 30 32 35 38 CHAPTER

Monday, May 18, 2020

Deja Vu A Phenomenon On Other Cultures All Over The...

Dà ©jà   vu Dà ©jà   vu is known as a phenomenon in various cultures all over the world. Individuals who have experienced dà ©jà   vu, are often left in a state of confusion. Research indicates that in the medical field, multiple dà ©jà   vu occurs within three types of individuals. These include suffering from temporal lobe damage, mental disorders, or creative thought compared to the actual dà ©jà   vu experience. â€Å"Dà ©jà   vu phenomena are not uncommon in the general population but their association with strong affective features and any suggestion of disturbances of consciousness should prompt a search for temporal lobe epilepsy,† (Dubrey, Abdel-Gadir, Rakowicz, 2011.) Due to the nature of and explanations of what dà ©jà   vu is, no evidence has been provided to show existence. No standardized testing has been created or established to measure or provide proof that dà ©jà   vu occurs. There is a lack of research and discussions on individuals wit hout brain damage, mental disorders, or cognitive trauma that recognizes that dà ©jà   vu occurs, yet there are individual reports that it was experienced. Instead, dà ©jà   vu is really a matter of perspective, based on the definition of what the individual understands or believes it is and, when and how it occurs. There is scientific based evidence that supports disruptions in memory which include recognition and recall. The purpose of this paper is to identify a realistic definition and explanation of dà ©jà   vu is, specifically failures in memory recall andShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Scientific Mystery of Dreams853 Words   |  4 Pages(4) Many experience this type of dream and slowly forget it over time, until it happens in real life. When it occurs in real life you automatically feel a sense of dà ©jà   vu and you notice something familiar about the scenary but you just can’t seem to remember from where exactly. Then you remember you’ve seen it befo re in a dream. This is a strange phenomenon that naturally happens to everyone, it’s just that some remember better than others. (4) The next two types of dreams are more known DreamRead More Mind Over Science: An Exploration into the World of Psi Essay1509 Words   |  7 PagesMind Over Science: An Exploration into the World of Psi That our perception of the world is predominantly governed by the senses of sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell is not disputed. However, scientists and amateur academics alike have historically disagreed about the existence of any additional senses, with the most contentious debate surrounding the phenomenon generally referred to as ESP, or psi. Despite the vast number of people who claim to have or to have witnessed psychic abilitiesRead MoreStephen King, Christine - Text Analysis2157 Words   |  9 Pagesusually crude and campy. His dark fantasies, like all good popular fiction, allow readers to express within conventional frames of reference feelings and concepts they might not otherwise consider. his vision articulates universal fears and desires in terms peculiar to contemporary culture. King is â€Å"Master of Postliterate Prose,† as Paul Gray stated in 1982—writing that takes readers mentally to the films rather than making them imagine or think. On the other hand, King’s work provides the most genuineRead MoreImpact of Globalization on Indian Education3068 Words   |  13 Pagesthe â€Å"Era of Globalization†. Globalisation is not a synonym of Global business, but it is more than that. Globalisation poses variety of complex trends in the economic, social and cultural fabrics of all societies.We live in an intensely interdependent world in which all immense differences of culture and historical experience are compressed together in instant communication. The international transactions in services are defined as the economic output of intangible commodities that may be producedRead MoreEssay on Jungian Psychology and Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness6193 Words   |  25 PagesLeopold as the Heart of Darkness, a place where barbarism triumphs over humanity, nature over technology, biology over culture, id over super ego. (McLynn, ix). The unknown and uncharted topography of the African continent first beckoned Conrad’s narrator, Marlow, into its depths in his boyhood: â€Å"Now, when I was a little chap I had a passion for maps. I would look for hours at South America, or Africa, or Australia, and lose myself in all the glories of exploration† (Conrad, 5). When Marlow was grownRead MorePyschoanalytic Personalities Essay Notes9106 Words   |  37 Pagesthe disagreements between Freud and Adler had become heated and emotionally intense; Adler resigned from his position as president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society (as the group had come to be called) and ended all contact with it. The debates with the domineering Freud and other members of the group had, however, helped Adler think through his own emerging theory of personality. He soon started his own society, called the Society for Free Psychoanalysis (later changed to the Society for IndividualRead MoreMinding the Business of College Athletic P rograms7955 Words   |  32 PagesPrograms 28 The NCAAs father was football and its mother was higher education. Kaye Hawes, staff writer for The NCAA News Introduction Be a sport, young people are admonished. Play fair. Play by the rules. Everywhere in the developed world, sports are raised high up on social pedestals as redeeming activities that characterize the best of the human spirit, fair competition, and physical achievement. Society welcomes athleticism due largely to anticipation of the wholesome and upstandingRead MoreIntroducing the History of Marketing Theory and Practice11077 Words   |  45 Pagesare studying and how this study should be undertaken. But as we shall see in this chapter and others in this book, this has often not been the case. Marketing as a subject has proved almost impossible to pin down, and there is little consensus about what it means to study marketing. Most organisations now employ marketers. Marketing roles were traditionally found in commercial firms, but increasingly all kinds of organisations feel the need to employ marketers or to commission services from marketingRead MoreInnovators Dna84615 Words   |  339 Pagesorganizations around the world on innovation, globalization, and transformation and has published extensively in leading academic and business journals. is the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School and the architect of and the world’s foremost authority on disruptive innovation. â€Å"Businesses worldwide have been guided and in uenced by e Innovator’s Dilemma and e Innovator’s Solution. Now e Innovator’s DNA shows where it all starts. is book gives

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Analysis Of Sonny s Blues - 1089 Words

Brianna Jones Mrs. Hampton Sonny Blues Essay May 1, 2015 Darkness in Sonny’s Blues The narrator in â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† states â€Å"For, while the tale of how we suffer, and how we are delighted, and how many triumph is never new, it always must be heard. There isn’t any other tale to tell, it’s the only light we’ve got in all this darkness.† This quote is in consonance with what the story is portraying, which is that people always endure struggle, but can find themselves progressing forward in life doing what they love to do. In James Baldwin’s â€Å"Sonny’s Blues†, the narrator and Sonny are bothers who go down different paths, in which Sonny turns to drugs and the narrator goes to college to become a teacher. Sonny goes to prison for selling and using drugs and the narrator is in disbelief, but he remembers what his mother told him, which is to always watch over and protect his little brother. As darkness pervades, the narrator finds it difficult to be his brother’s keeper, understand the issue with drugs and alcohol, and to understand why so many blacks were physically and mentally imprisoned. The narrator finds it strenuous to look after his brother because Sonny has hit rock bottom and the narrator does not know how he could possibly help. The narrator is debating with himself whether or not he even wants to write to Sonny while he is in prison. The narrator is feeling very consternated about Sonny going to prison because he has always seen Sonny as this bright andShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Sonny s Blues 1510 Words   |  7 Pagessocially and academically involved. In â€Å"The Two Offers† by Frances E. W Harper, her character Laura Lagrange who has to decide on if the married life is truly what she wants, would the man she marries agree with her desires of making a home? In â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† by James Baldwin, two brothers are defined by their life choices in which were influenced by society. â€Å"Song of Solomon† by Toni Morrison’s main character Milkman, has a coming of age story, in which he finds out what and where his home really is,Read MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Sonny s Blues 1580 Words   |  7 PagesAnisah Smith Professor Adamson Literature 150 2 May 2016 To Escape or to Remain? ​ ​According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, imprisonment is the act of confining or the state of being confined. In the short shorties and poem, â€Å"Sonny’s Blues, â€Å"Apollo† and #280, the authors Baldwin, Adichie and Dickinson illustrate how one’s actions and relationships can lead to a deeper sense of self imprisonment portrayed in each of their characters. This paper will go into depth about whether these charactersRead MoreMovie Analysis : Sonny s Blues1248 Words   |  5 PagesRecords Some people might agree that a broken home might be better then no home, or maybe having no home is better then having a hopeless home. The narrator who is unnamed in Baldwin’s â€Å"Sonny’s Blues†, is from a home that you can carry good and horrid memories with you. In the short story â€Å"Sonny’s Blues†, the narrator along with his entire household all have personal suffering that affect their lives tremendously. Consider that almost everyone has problems in their life and household, weather youRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Sonny s Blues 2020 Words   |  9 PagesBaldwin’s â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† has an apparent theme of suffering that directly relates to the title of the short story. The title of the short story has multiple meanings. The term â€Å"blues† refers to the jazz genre, which Sonny feels very passionately about, but also signifies his severe depression. Sonny is increasingly distant with his brother as ti me goes on, which increases his unhappiness. His happiness deteriorates with his relationships with his other family members, such as Isabel and Grace.Read MoreAnalysis Of James Baldwin s Sonny s Blues 916 Words   |  4 PagesJames Baldwin’s story â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† tells the tale of two African-American brothers trying to survive in 1950s America. Both struggle with darkness in their lives, from drugs to bottling up emotions. The following sources were found Literature Research Center’s website. Each of the four sources will be evaluated for the quality of their information, as well as their usefulness on the topic of darkness in â€Å" â€Å"Sonny’s Blues†. Flibbert, Joseph. Sonny s Blues: Overview. Reference Guide to ShortRead MoreAnalysis Of The Story Sonny s Blues 2718 Words   |  11 PagesUnderstanding Sonny’s Blues The story, Sonny’s Blues, is a composition of themes, imagery, form and mood all blended in perfect harmony. Such creation gave the story its beautiful resonating effect and influence amongst the readers. With a rising and roaring apex, the story was an unfolding of human emotions and realities filled with pain, sorrows, happiness, realizations, and life lessons. Although the story was written in 1957, even until the present, people can still observe its lingering powerfulRead MoreSetting Analysis : Sonny s Blues 921 Words   |  4 PagesSetting Analysis of the Nightclub in â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† â€Å"Sonny’s Blues,† which is an outstanding short story by James Baldwin, describes many obstacles in lifestyles and relationships of African-Americans in the influential time of post Harlem Renaissance and discrimination in the 1950s. In the end of the story, the nightclub setting is the most important and emotional turning point of the brotherhood between narrator and his young brother, Sonny. After many conflicts and arguments about their differentRead MoreAnalysis Of Sonny s Blues By John M. Lee2198 Words   |  9 PagesInstructor: Dr. Kim Course: English 132 Sonny’s Blues is one of the famous stories expressing the deplorable conditions the Black community found themselves in during the struggle against racial segregation in the American history. The analysis given by John M. Reilley is to draw the attention of the readers and audience on the image of the black community, basically as expressed by Sonny’s Blues as a metaphor. Following the publication of Sonny’s Blues, James Baldwin realized he had a role in the AfricanRead MoreAnalysis Of James Baldwin s Sonny s Blues 1578 Words   |  7 PagesJames Baldwin’s short story â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† was a great tale of the struggles shared between two brothers in Harlem in 1957. This story is about two African American brothers who, unfortunately, grew apart as the aged. The plot shows the struggles the two brothers faced as they grew up in Harlem, and in return, the two drastically different paths they perused. James Baldwin was an African America n who grew up in Harlem in the 1930s and 40s. Baldwin was the oldest of nine children, and grew upRead MoreAnalysis Of James Baldwin s Sonny s Blues 933 Words   |  4 PagesAddiction is a horrible thing. Unhappiness is a mood throughout the whole story. Blues is a genre of music that is often used to express a sad mood. The contradictory lives of the two brothers contribute to the theme of being safe and take risks. In this story, James Baldwin writes about two brothers who were raised together. As time passed, they separated from one another and lived completely different lives. â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† by James Baldwin addresses the themes of finding comfort in music, dangers of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The, Gift Of God s Grace - 1284 Words

Chapter 17 Assignment #3 (Ryan Cho) 17.3 Joseph II of Austria, Toleration Patent 1781, pogroms, Pietism, John Wesley, Methodism, â€Å"gift of God’s grace† 1) Joseph II of Austria. Joseph II of Austria was emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1765 to 1790, and served as ruler of Habsburg from 1780 to 1790. Joseph strongly emphasized an enlightened version of absolutism, which gained him much needed support at the time. During his tenure, Joseph sough truly radical changes in government through Enlightenment ideas. His commitment to modernizing reforms, although, endangered him and allowed significant opposition to gain power against him. For that reason, he never fully implemented his plans of absolutism, as he died without an heir to the throne. 2) Toleration Patent 1781. The Toleration Patent of 1781, also known as the Edict of Toleration, was an edict that was issued in 1781 by Joseph II of Austria. The edict allowed members of minority faiths (not of Christianity, for example, Protestant religions) to perform religious practices without being persecuted. This was very important for minority faiths it finally allowed them religious freedom and separation from the Church, which led to the growth of Protestant populations 3) Pogroms. A pogrom is a somewhat organized, and violent riot or massacre aimed against a specific group or ethnicity. One, for example, was aimed specifically at the Jews. The word pogroms spread and was entered the dictionary because of the countlessShow MoreRelatedMy Personal Experience And Understanding Of God1722 Words   |  7 Pagesunderstanding of God has resulted from what God has revealed to me. F. Belton Joyner, Jr. says, What we know about God is what God has revealed to us. Over the course of my life God has been revealed to me through God s love and grace. When I was twelve years old, I accepted Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior of my life. In the years prior, God was continually drawing me closer to God, even before I was aware I needed God. We are made aware of our need for repentance through God s grace that stirs upRead MoreKolbergs Stages of Moral Development1588 Words   |  7 PagesTHE SOVEREIGNY OF GOD AND HUMAN RESPONSIBILITY Augustine s understanding of the relationship between the sovereignty of God and human responsibility is more biblical than Cassian s view. Augustine s school of theology totally relies on God as the grace giver, however Cassian s school relies on man s merit before receiving grace. This debate has been going on since the early church and still affects the church today. Many people have different opinions and interpretations of how the BibleRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Salvation By F. Scott Fitzgerald1057 Words   |  5 Pagesthat something as significant as God’s grace comes so freely. Is has no dollar amount, no price tag on it. Paul says that salvation is given by grace, not as a result of our own works. We can t earn salvation. That seems easy to understand theologically, but we don t usually act like this is true. Grace and salvation are free! And they are tremendous gifts at any price. In an old Dennis the Menace cartoon, Dennis and his friend Joey are leaving Mrs. Wilson s house, their hands full of cookies.Read MoreSaved By Grace Through Faith : So Do Works Matter?1571 Words   |  7 PagesSaved By Grace Through Faith: So Do Works Matter? By Ivan Seito Amago | Submitted On January 30, 2013 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Ivan Seito Amago 1. How Did It All Begin? In the ChristianRead MoreTradition And Rules Of The Gospel Of Christ Essay1465 Words   |  6 Pagesrevelation of salvation available through the grace of Jesus Christ both to the Jew and Gentile. Through tradition each generation accumulates wisdom, love and values from their ancestors. Salvation cannot be accumulated through tradition it must be experienced through the revelation of Jesus Christ by the Holy Spirit and accepted as a gift from God. Paul`s gospel stresses that God`s plan is for the development of a relationship with his creation and not in human`s ability to follow tradition and rulesRead MoreThe Law Of The Old Testament Essay982 Words   |  4 Pagesknow how to know God and how to be right with God, so that they do go to heaven. Let s discuss this very simply. Actually, this is a very difficult question to answer under the LAW of the Old Testament. But it is a very easy question to answer under grace in the New Testament. Keep in mind we shouldn t be living under the law of the Old Testament. We are judged by our belief in the gospel, not by the law (Rom 2:16). CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS VIEWS There are two ways to live a God type of life. THERead MoreUnderstanding Of Sin And Grace On The Basis Of Salvation1394 Words   |  6 PagesFebruary 2, 2015 â€Æ' â€Å"Romans 3:23 - For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God† Everyone has sinned and fallen out of the grace. All mankind is comprehended to be involved, in some manner, in the disobedience of Adam. Everything began at the Garden of Eden when Adam sinned, the way that Adam was made in the image of God implied that he was free from all ordinary shortcomings and weaknesses and death. Adam s sin is regularly spoken of as a predisposition to sin inside human nature. ChristRead MoreViews Of Predestination And The Christian Faith1653 Words   |  7 Pagespredestined unto life, God, before the foundation of the world was laid, according to his eternal and immutable purpose, and the secret counsel and good pleasure of his will, hath chosen in Christ unto everlasting glory, out of his mere free grace and love, without any foresight of faith or good works, or perseverance in either of them, or any other thing in the creature, as conditions, or causes moving him thereunto; and all to the praise of his glorious grace† (Section III. Of God s Etern al Decree).Read MoreThe Prayer Of The Lord s Supper819 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"And it is by God s will that we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.†1 The Church is sanctified, set apart in the power of the Holy Spirit, to participate in the Kingdom building work of God. The practice of the Lord s Supper, that remembers and celebrates this reality, is the foundation of Christian worship that forms this identity of the Church. As Gordon Lathrop writes: But here is a beginning: Assembly, a gathering together of participating personsRead MoreThe Dream Of The Rood881 Words   |  4 Pagesbring the glory back to God, reflecting on his goodness and his purposes in the earth. The dreamer, who heard and recounted the Rood’s story, ends with hope in Christ and a hope in the future of everlasting life in heaven. The Rood communicates to the dreamer that God recognizes this type of faith. For its tremendous self-discipline and submission to the Lord s will, the Rood gains a rich reward. Just as Christ s obedience to his Father was recognized by God, the Rood s faithfulness is also acknowledged

Bias Rhetorical Devices Free Essays

What are some examples of bias, fallacies, and specific rhetorical devices in the speech? The very beginning of the speech begins with a campaigner who is introducing their new candidate for Governor and who expresses negative bias towards the current Governor, Jim Gettys. It begins by describing the current governing as an â€Å"evil domination†. That same campaigner then expresses equal bias but in a positive way, towards Charles Foster Kane, by saying he is the only one who can rid the state of its current politics. We will write a custom essay sample on Bias Rhetorical Devices or any similar topic only for you Order Now The campaigner calls him a fighting liberal and friend of the working man but gives no examples of why he feels that way. The speech is full of rhetorical devices, using analytical definitions to create emotion in the listeners. Charles Foster Kane points out that his only purpose is to â€Å"point out and make public, the dishonesty and downright villainy of Jim Getty’s political machine†. He is using hyperbole in this statement in order to exaggerate his viewpoint. Also you can read Rhetorical Devices in Night Walker by Brent Staples He states that â€Å"this machine is in complete control of the government of the State† causing the people to react since this is the very situation our founding fathers hoped to avoid when creating the United States Constitution. Kane is also aligning himself with those he knows will be more likely to vote within his party lines such as the working man, slum child, underpaid, underprivileged and underfed. He realizes that by exaggerating the power contained by Jim Gettys and his Administration, he will rally the folks not usually interested into voting for him, by telling them they deserve so much more. He uses the argument from outrage to express how diabolical the existing government is in order to persuade the people that definitive change is needed. Various fallacies are prominent throughout the speech. One of the fallacies is the determination that Kane will be voted Governor based on the polls. However, since the election has not even begun, it is impossible for him to draw this conclusion. Also, we see the group think fallacy where Kane describes himself as the friend of the lower classes, making believe he is one of them. Argument by popularity is used when Kane assumes that the polls indicate his obvious triumph in the upcoming election and reflect him as the winner and most popular choice for voters. He is also using scare tactics when stating that the current Government has complete control over the state, and that they are a dictatorship. In all of the above cases, no information is given to support the claims being made. How did the speaker address arguments and counter arguments? The speaker’s arguments are unclear since he did not use common premise and conclusion statements. There are no comparisons between what Kane feels has already been done versus what he intends to do. However, he is making the claim that he will be elected as Governor based on the poll information. He also makes the biased claims against the Administration of Jim Gettys and the control it has over the State Government at that time. His argument leads to the unspoken conclusion that the existing government does not care for the ordinary people and that he intends to change the focus of the government to care for the decent, the underpaid, underfed, underprivileged, working men and slum children. Therefore, Kane would be the better choice as the Governor for the people of that State. I do not see any evidence of counter arguments since at no point does he state another person’s claim and argue against that. Were the speaker’s arguments effective? Explain your answer. The speaker’s arguments were effective in invoking an emotional response from the listeners and persuade them that they should not vote for the existing Governor. His use of political rhetoric and fallacies were effective in creating doubt about the honesty of Gettys and his Administration. Kane wanted to expose the existing government as corrupt, uncaring and in complete control of all of their lives. He succeeded at this by using statements to invoke anger which is usually substituted for reason. There are no conclusive promises made, other than to indict and convict Jim Gettys. Therefore, the people have no idea what policies or promises Kane intends to put into practice. Although the arguments were effective in persuasive techniques, they were not sound. There were no details or facts to support his claims that Kane specifically, would make a better Governor. How to cite Bias Rhetorical Devices, Essay examples

Sauda Essay Example For Students

Sauda Essay Saudi ArabiaI INTRODUCTION Saudi Arabia, monarchy in southwestern Asia, occupying most of the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a land of vast deserts and little rainfall. Huge deposits of oil and natural gas lie beneath the countrys surface. Saudi Arabia was a relatively poor nation before the discovery and exploitation of oil, but since the 1950s income from oil has made the country wealthy. The religion of Islam developed in the 7th century in what is now Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, and it has been ruled by his descendants ever since. Saudi Arabia is bounded on the north by Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait; on the east by the Persian Gulf and Qatar; on the southeast by the United Arab Emirates and Oman; on the south by Yemen; and on the west by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. The countrys border with the United Arab Emirates is not precisely defined. Saudi Arabia has an area of about 2,240,000 sq km (about 864,900 sq mi). The capital and largest city is Riyadh. II LAND AND RESOURCES The Arabian Peninsula is essentially a huge, tilted block of rock, highest in the west and sloping gradually down to the east. Most of this slab of rock is covered with the sand of several large deserts. Saudi Arabias landscape also contains mountain ranges, flat coastal plains, and the rocky remains of hardened lava flows. The countrys climate is hot and dry, and there are no permanent rivers or lakes. A Natural Regions Saudi Arabia can be divided into four natural regions. These are the mountainous western highlands; the rocky central plateau; the more fertile, eastern low-lying coastal plain; and the sandy desert areas of the north, east, and south. A1 Highlands of Al #7720;ij#257;z and As#299;r A string of mountain ranges stretches along the western edge of Saudi Arabia. The northern segment of these highlands, known as Al #7720;ij#257;z (Hejaz), has a general elevation of 600 to 900 m (2,000 to 3,000 ft), with some mountains exceeding 2,000 m (6,500 ft). Rainfall here is infrequent, but streams flowing down the west side of the highlands allow limited agriculture in valleys and on the narrow coastal plain. On the eastern slopes of the highlands, prehistoric lava flows solidified to form vast, barren fields of dark-colored, broken basaltic stone known as harras. South of Al #7720;ij#257;z the highlands continue into the region known as As#299;r. Here, the highlands are rugged and reach considerably higher elevations than in Al #7720;ij#257;z: Much of As#299;r lies between 1,500 and 2,000 m (5,000 and 7,000 ft). The highest point in Saudi Arabia, Jabal Sawd#257; (3,207 m/10,522 ft), is located in this region, near the border wit h Yemen. As;#299;r receives more rainfall than Al ;#7720;ij;#257;z, allowing more widespread farming. A2 Najd An arid, rocky plateau known as Najd occupies the interior of Saudi Arabia. The western half of the plateau is a desolate tableland of broken volcanic rock crossed by wadis (watercourses that flow only after rains). In the eastern half numerous rocky ridges run north to south. Bordered on its north, east, and south by desert areas, Najd itself also contains several deserts, including Naf;#363;d ad Da;#7721;y, a series of sandhills and ridges that divide western Najd from eastern Najd. A3 Al A;#7721;s;#257; In the east, along the Persian Gulf, is the low-lying region of Al A#7721;s#257;, known for its vast petroleum deposits, farms, and gulf ports. Here, natural springs made agriculture and large-scale settlement possible long before the discovery of the regions rich oil reserves. The agricultural oasis of Al Qa#355;#299;f is noted for its large plantations of date palms. The coast consists of salt flats (called sabkhas), marshes, lagoons, and sandy or rocky beaches. Offshore coral reefs, mud islands, and sand bars made navigation difficult before channels to ports were dredged in the 20th century. A4 Deserts Considerably more than half the area of Saudi Arabia is desert. Some desert areas are covered with shifting sand dunes, while others are more stable flat or rippled expanses of sand. Shaped and moved by winds, sand dunes take the form of long ridges or tall hills. Sand, gravel, or bare rock basins lie between the dunes. Few plants grow in these arid deserts, except in scattered oases supported by springs or wells. Three large deserts lie on three sides of the countrys central plateau: An Naf;#363;d to the north, the Rub al Khali to the south, and the narrow Ad Dahn;#257; connecting these two on the east. The Rub al Khali, one of the largest deserts in the world, has an area of about 650,000 sq km (about 250,000 sq mi), nearly as large as the U.S. state of Texas. An Naf#363;d is characterized by parallel sand ridges, most 6 to 15 m (20 to 50 ft) high, but some sand hills rise as high as 30 m (100 ft). In some areas, wind has stripped the bedrock surface clean of loose material. North of An Naf#363;d are the southern fringes of the Syrian Desert. A belt of sand hills and ridges known as Ad Dahn#257; extends in an arc south from An Naf;#363;d, separating Najd and Al A;#7721;s;#257;. Ad Dahn#257;, varying in width from 24 to 80 km (15 to 50 mi), connects the northern desert regions with the Rub al Khali in the south. A similar but discontinuous band of sand ridges lies on the western edge of Najd, also connecting An Naf;#363;d and the Rub al Khali. Rub al Khali means Empty Quarter in Arabic, reflecting the barren and forbidding nature of the southern Arabian desert. It is much larger and drier than the other Saudi deserts, contains no oases, and can only be inhabited temporarily, in the cooler winter months, by camel-herding nomads called Bedoui ns. The Rub al Khali extends over much of southeastern Saudi Arabia and beyond the southern frontier into Yemen and Oman. Like An Naf;#363;d, the Rub al Khali is a sea of sand ridges and hills, some of which are as high as 150 m (500 ft). One of the worlds best-preserved meteor impact sites is located in the middle of the Rub al Khali, at a site called Wabar. B Climate Extreme heat and aridity are characteristic of most of Saudi Arabia. It is one of the few places in the world where summer temperatures above 50C (120F) are common, while in winter frost or snow can occur in the interior and the higher mountains. The average temperature range in January is 8 to 20C (47 to 68F) in Riyadh and 19 to 29C (66 to 83F) in Jiddah. The average range in July is 27 to 43C (81 to 109F) in Riyadh and 27 to 38C (80 to 100F) in Jiddah. Precipitation is usually sparse, although sudden downpours can lead to violent flash floods in wadis. Annual rainfall in Riyadh averages 100 mm (4 in) and falls almos t exclusively between January and May; the average in Jiddah is 54 mm (2.1 in) and occurs between November and January. C Natural Resources Some of the worlds largest oil and natural gas fields lie beneath Saudi Arabia and its offshore waters, representing the countrys most economically important natural resource. In 2003 Saudi Arabias oil reserves were estimated at 1.8 billion barrels. Before the discovery and exploitation of these reserves in the mid-20th century, Saudi Arabia was one of the poorest countries in the world. Its relatively small population subsisted in a harsh environment with little agricultural land and limited water resources. Saudi Arabia lacks permanent lakes and rivers, but considerable reserves of underground water have been discovered across the country. These have been used to increase agricultural production and provide water for the growing population. Desalination plants on the Persian Gulf and Red Sea coasts provide important, if expensive, sources of w ater. In addition, a number of dams built across wadis capture seasonal rainwater temporarily. D Plants and Animals Various fruit trees, notably the date palm, and a wide variety of grains and vegetables thrive in desert oases and in irrigated areas. Outside these areas, only sparse desert shrubs and trees survive. Large animals such as ostriches, oryxes, mountain goats, gazelles, and leopards were once numerous. However, hunters equipped with modern weapons and transportation have wiped out most or all of these prized game animals. Among other local wild mammals are foxes, hyenas, ibexes, panthers, wildcats, hedgehogs, sand rats, jerboas, hares, and wolves. Flamingos and pelicans are common on Saudi shores, and bustards, pigeons, and quails are found across most of the country. Lizards and snakes thrive in the arid desert and tableland, and the coastal waters are home to a wide variety of marine life. In particular, the coral reefs of the Red Sea are home to a dazzling array of brightly colored fish and other marine animals. E Environmental Issues The Persian Gulf oil industry has polluted the gulf for decades through unintentional oil spillagefrom tanker accidents and pipeline leaksand through dumping of oil-processing waste. Spilled oil and dumped waste have ruined bird habitats on the Saudi Arabian coast and killed countless fish and marine mammals. The situation worsened dramatically during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, when the Iraqi assault on Kuwait resulted in the release of 910 million liters (240 million gallons) of oil into the gulf. Kuwaiti oil wells set ablaze in the war also caused severe air pollution in Saudi Arabia. Beyond pollution caused by the oil industry, Saudi Arabias rapidly growing population has outpaced the provision of sewage services, resulting in the contamination of underground water near urban areas. The country has made some efforts to protect native species and preserve habitats. There is an extensive system of protected areas, including a national park and a number of natu re reserves. Some protection has also been extended to sensitive marine habitats off the coasts. Saudi Arabia participates in international environmental agreements pertaining to climate change, hazardous wastes, and ozone layer protection. Regionally, the country has committed itself to the cooperative protection of shared marine environments in the Persian Gulf, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden. III POPULATION In 2004 Saudi Arabia had an estimated population of 25.1 million and a population density of 11.7 persons per sq km (30.3 persons per sq mi). About 23 percent of the population (amounting to about 5.4 million people) is made up of foreign nationals living in Saudi Arabia. The countrys population growth rate is one of the fastest in the world, at 3.27 percent (2004). The rapid rate of population growth and the large percentage of foreign workers and their dependents have significant political, social, and economic implications on Saudi Arabia. Foreign workers play an important role in the country, making up a large portion of the labor force and the consumer base. However, due mainly to a series of economic downturns, the government has pursued a policy of Saudi-ization to reduce its reliance on expatriates in the workforce. For more information, see the Labor section of this article. Riyadh, in the central Najd region, is Saudi Arabias capital and largest city, followe d by Jiddah, in Al #7720;ij#257;z. Also located in Al #7720;ij#257;z are the two holiest cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina. Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, was born in Mecca and first gained a large following in Medina in the early 7th century. Once a year, close to 2 million Muslims make a pilgrimage to Mecca, a religious duty known as the hajj. Other major cities include the ports of Ad Damm#257;m and Al Jubayl on the Persian Gulf; Al Huf#363;f, in the oasis of Al Hasa in eastern Saudi Arabia; and A#355; #354;#257;if, close to Mecca. A Ethnic Groups and Languages The Arabian Peninsula is the heartland of the Arab people and the Arabic language. The vast majority of Saudi residents are Arabs, and many claim descent from ancient Bedouin tribes native to the peninsula. However, there is some regional diversity. For centuries, the hajj has attracted Muslims from around the world to western Arabia. Those who settled permanently and intermarried with the local population have given rise to a diverse Muslim population in Al ;#7720;ij;#257;z. Some Saudi communities have African roots, a legacy of the days when slave trading was permitted in the region. The large foreign-born population of the kingdom consists mainly of Arabs from countries such as Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Yemen. In addition, many people from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines live and work in Saudi Arabia. Arabic is the official language of Saudi Arabia and is used by most of the native population. English is an important second language, used in government, commerce, the media, and among the non-Arab expatriate community. B Religion Islam is the countrys official religion. An estimated 89 percent of Saudis are Sunni Muslims (see Sunni Islam), and about 5 percent are Shia Muslims (see Shia Islam). The government employs the Sharia (Islamic law) as a guiding principle of rule. Consequently, Islamic tenets not only govern spirituality and religious practice, but also guide practices of law, business, taxation, and government. The form of Islam supported by the government is socially and theologically conservative. While Saudis and foreigners may behave as they wish behind closed doors, they must observe many strict religious requirements while in public. These include conservative dress for men and women, segregation of the sexes, mandatory daily prayers for Muslim men, and the closing of offices and businesses during the five daily prayer times. A government agency called the Committee to Prevent Vice and Promote Virtue sends out official enforcers called mutawwain to ensure observance of these rules. P unishments for transgressions can be summary and harsh, including public flogging. Saudi Arabias conservative form of Islam is strongly influenced by a puritanical Islamic movement formed in the 18th century. This movement is often referred to by Westerners and other non-Saudis as Wahhabism, after its founder, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (see Wahhabis). However, the movements adherents have never referred to themselves as Wahhabis, and within Saudi Arabia, Wahhabi is often used by non-Saudis or reform-minded Saudis in reproach to refer to conservative Muslims. In modern-day Saudi Arabia, strong adherents of the movement may call themselves muwahhidun (unitarians, from al-muwahhid, Arabic for those who proclaim the unity of God) or ahl al-tawhid (people of unity). Less strident followersa significant portion of the population, including some members of the royal familymay simply say they are part of the harakat al-salafiyya, roughly translated as the movement following the ways of the Prophet. The countrys Shia Muslims are concentrated around the oases of Al Hasa and Al Qa#355;#299;f in eastern Saudi Arabia. Strict muwahhidun do not recognize the Shias as true Muslims. Therefore, historically, Saudi authorities have subjected them to discrimination and oppression, arousing resentment and opposition to the regime among the Shias. Other religions are represented among the expatriate population. However, the government does not allow public practice of non-Islamic religions and prohibits missionary activity. C Education The Saudi government has built an education system that provides free schooling at all levels to a large portion of the population. School is not compulsory, but 68 percent of primary school-age children are enrolled in school (2000-2001), as well as 68 percent of secondary school-age children. A dramatic increase in literacy over the last decades of the 20th century is one indicator of the success of the governments efforts. According to a 1970 estimate, Saudis had one of the lowest literacy rates in the Middle East: 15 percent fo r men and 2 percent for women. In 2004, 85 percent of all men and 72 percent of all women were literate. The government operates most primary and secondary schools, but also permits privately owned schools. The Saudi curriculum heavily emphasizes the study of Islam. Saudi Arabia has several universities and teacher training colleges, and a large number of other higher education institutions. Major universities include King Saud University (1957) and the Islamic University of Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud (1953), in Riyadh; the Islamic University at Medina (1961); King Faisal University (1975), with colleges in both Ad Damm;#257;m and Al Huf;#363;f King Abdul Aziz University (1967), in Jiddah; King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (1963), in Ad Damm;#257;m; and Umm Al-Qura University (1979), in Mecca. The government funds university and graduate education abroad, and many Saudi students attend educational institutions in the United States and United Kingdom. This has helped create an English-speaking technocratic elite, some of whom are advocates of political reform and social liberalization. The government extended public education to girls in 1960, despite opposition from some conservative religious leaders. Female education, now widely popular, is helping to transform the traditional role of women in Saudi society. Nonetheless, the education system is segregated by gender. In the past, women who wished to attend college were largely limited to the study of education or nursing (as these were the principal types of work deemed acceptable for women). However, economic and social pressures have forced universities to broaden the range of educational opportunities for women. D Way of Life As in other Middle Eastern societies, the family is the focal point of identity, loyalty, social status, and economic prospects in Saudi Arabia. Households tend to be large; Saudi women bear 6.1 children on average, according to 2004 statistics. The roles of men and women are sharply divided in many respects, a reflection of conservative Islamic practice and local custom. Men are expected to lead the household and provide for its financial well-being. Women are expected to marry, have children, and raise them according to Islamic principles. Therefore, few Saudi women work outside the home. In 2002 women made up only 18 percent of the labor force, and most of these were expatriate workers. Saudi women are not permitted to drive or to travel abroad without a male relatives approval. Some women and men have expressed opposition to these restrictions, and the government has on occasion expressed a willingness to gradually provide more rights for women. However, opposition from religious authorities, a lack of strong support from the ruling family, and the basic conservatism of broad sectors of the Saudi population have made change very slow. Influenced by the dictates of Islamic custom and the need for protection from a hot, dusty climate, traditional Saudi clothing is designed to cover and conceal the body. Although there are regional variations in the styles, colors, and materials used in traditional clothing, the customary garb of the Najd region has come to predominate throughout Saudi Arabia as a result of government and social pressure. Younger generations of Saudis, favoring blue jeans and baseball caps, are moving away from wearing traditional garb. Women traditionally use veils to cover their hair in public and a mask (called a burka or batula) to cover their faces. At home, women usually wear a caftan (full-length, loose robe with long sleeves), which may be ornamented with embroidery. When going outside the house, women add an outer garmen t called an abaya, which is often made of dark, gauzy material that also can help cover the head. For men, the most common garment is the thob, similar to the caftan in that it reaches the ground and has long sleeves. It is typically made of white cotton, but men may wear thobs of dark wool in the cooler months. Over the thob men may wear an aba or bisht, a coarser robe usually of brown wool. Men also tend to cover their heads, first with a small skullcap, then with a large square kerchief called a ghoutra. The ghoutra is often white but is also found in red or black checked patterns. It is held in place with an igal, two intertwined black cords formed into rings. A typical meal in Saudi Arabia could include mutton, chicken, or fish, with rice, bread, and vegetables. Dates are a local delicacy. Coffee, tea, and fruit juices are the most popular beverages among all segments of the population. Alcoholic beverages are prohibited. Food, especially sweets, takes on special significance d uring the holy month of Ramadan, when devout Muslims fast (go without food or drink) until the sun sets. IV CULTURE Bedouin society and Islam have shaped Saudi cultural expression. As in many parts of the Middle East, Saudis view the nomadic Bedouin as the embodiment of core social and cultural values, including honor, valor, chivalry, and hospitality. In pre-Islamic times called jahiliyya (Arabic for time of ignorance), Bedouin poetry was one of the most developed and influential forms of cultural expression on the Arabian Peninsula. Among these nomadic people, poetry was an oral tradition: Poets recited or sang their works, and listeners memorized the poems and retold them to others. The Bedouin poetical tradition influenced subsequent Arabian literature, and survives to the present day. Islam developed in Arabia in the 7th century and soon came to influence nearly all aspects of Arabian cultural life, including the arts, architecture, the Arabic language, and literature. Today, the kingdoms conservative religious authorities attempt to control cultural expression strictly, forbidding movie theaters, and singing or dancing at religious observances. A Literature Poetry was the first form of Arabic literature to attain a high degree of refinement, and the poetry of pre-Islamic Arabia is still admired and influential. The most notable type of poem was the qasida, an ode that could have a number of often-complex rhyming patterns. These odes dealt with themes such as love, beauty, courage in battle, and praise for noble leaders. The most influential poet of the pre-Islamic period was Imru al-Qays. The Quran, revealed to Muhammad and recorded in Arabic, has had a profound influence on Arabian literature and society. Not only a guide for living life according to Gods will, the Quran is also considered by many to exemplify the perfect use of the Arabic language and provide an ultimate literary model. Antigone: A Tragic Hero EssayVII HISTORY Fossil remains of elephants, hippopotamuses, crocodiles, and other large animals found in parts of the Arabian Peninsula indicate that the climate could support much more vegetation between 11 million and 4 million years ago than it can today. The regions arid climate, however, seems to date back at least 5,000 years. Prehistoric flint tools and rock drawings in various parts of the peninsula provide evidence of scattered habitation by Stone Age peoples. A Ancient Arabia Arabia served as a crossroads between the major ancient civilizations that rose and fell nearby: Babylonia, in what is now Iraq; the Nile Valley kingdoms of Ancient Egypt and Kush; and the early states of Yemen. By 4000 bc an advanced trading culture known as Dilmun developed on the Persian Gulf islands of Bahrain and the nearby Arabian coast. Dilmun provided an important stop on trade routes linking Mesopotamia to Oman and the Indus Valley civilizations of South Asia. Dilmu n reached the height of its power in about 2000 bc. It was occupied by the Kassites of Mesopotamia in about 1600 bc, and declined in importance over the next 1,000 years. The next major Arabian power to develop was the Minaean kingdom, which was well established by 1000 bc in As#299;r and southern Al #7720;ij#257;z along the Red Sea coast. Its capital was at Karna, also spelled Qarnah (present-day #350;adah, Yemen). The Minaeans were nomads and herders who came to dominate the Al #7720;ij#257;z trade in incensesubstances that were burned to honor gods in many of the regions pre-Islamic religions. The Minaeans withdrew from their trading post at Ded;#257;n (now Al Ula, in northern Al ;#7720;ij;#257;z) in the 1st century bc; afterward the Nabataeans founded a commercial center nearby at Mad;#257;in #350;#257;li#7721;. The buildings of Mad#257;in ;#350;;#257;li;#7721; are carved from rock in the same manner as those of the Nabataean capital of Petra, in present-day Jordan. In the 6th century ad the Lakhmid dynasty of Hira, centered in southern Iraq, began to replace the Minaeans as the regional power of central Arabia. By the 6th century Mecca was alread y an important city. It was a major stop on the main trade route between Yemen and the civilizations of the Mediterranean, and was also a pilgrimage destination for many Arab peoples who practiced polytheism (worship of multiple gods). B Coming of Islam Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, was born in Mecca in about 570 to a family belonging to a branch of the Quraysh, the dominant tribe of Mecca. His first attempts to preach the oneness of God met with only partial success, gaining him both followers and opponents in his home city. Muhammad had more success with tribes in nearby Medina, and he moved there in 622. Muhammads emigration, known as the Hegira (hijrah in Arabic) marks the first year of the Islamic calendar. In 630 he returned with his followers and conquered Mecca. After Muhammads death in 632, the Islamic community (ummah) was guided by caliphs (khalifah, Arabic for successor), who succeeded Muhammad in his role as Islams political leader. The first four caliphs ruled from Mecca and Medina, overseeing the rapid expansion of an Islamic empire through conversion and military conquest (see Spread of Islam). By 650 an organized Islamic state ruled a newly unified Arabian Peninsula as well as the entire Fertile Crescent (what is now Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel) and Egypt. The Umayyad dynasty of caliphs moved the seat of the caliphate to Damascus in 661. The political center of the great Islamic empire would remain outside the peninsula from this point onward, pushing Arabia to the fringes of Islamic culture and power until modern times. After 1269 most of Al #7720;ij#257;z was ruled by the Egyptian Mamluks. The Ottoman Empire gained control of Al #7720;ij#257;z when it conquered Egypt in 1517. Neither the Mamluks nor the Ottomans extended their authority into the central Arabian Najd region, which remained the domain of Bedouin tribal chiefs. C Abd al-Wahhab and the Rise of the Saudis In the mid-18th century the Muslim leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab attempted to gain religious influence in Najd. Abd al-Wahhab aggressively propagated an Islamic doctrine that he felt was as pure and true as the one preached originally by Muhammad. His view of Islam emphasized the oneness of God and f orbade practices such as the worship of saints and holy men. In 1744 Abd al-Wahhab found an ally in Muhammad ibn Saud, the leader of the tiny settlement of Ad Dir#299;yah in the central Najd region. Thanks to Abd al-Wahhabs strident religious convictions and Muhammad ibn Sauds political and military prowess, a powerful movement was born. Adherents, who called themselves muwahhidun (referred to as Wahhabis by outsiders), quickly spread far and wide. Villagers and nomads joined the movement out of either conviction or fearthe muwahhidun spread their message using soldiers as well as preachers. In the first years of the 19th century, muwahhidun forces conquered the main cities and towns of Al #7720;ij#257;z, including Mecca and Medina. In these cities, Abd al-Wahhabs representatives attempted to destroy the tombs of Muhammad and the caliphs, believing such edifices encouraged idolatrous worship. The forces then advanced northward, plundering the Shia holy city of Karbal;#257; and disru pting the major Ottoman trade routes in what is now Iraq and Syria. Faced with this growing threat, the Ottomans sent a force from Egypt to invade Arabia. Warfare raged across the peninsula from 1811 to 1818, when Egyptian forces defeated the muwahhidun and razed Ad Dir#299;yah. After the Egyptian armies withdrew in 1824, the remaining forces of the Saudi family regrouped in the town of Riyadh, near Ad Dir#299;yah, and began reclaiming the Najd lands they had lost. Throughout most of the 19th century the Saudis and their followers faced opposition from several quarters: rival emirates ruled by the Rashidis of #7720;#257;il, to the north; the sharifs (descendants of the Prophet), who ruled parts of Al ;#7720;ij;#257;z; and an Ottoman presence in Al Hasa, in the east. The Rashidis grew more powerful than the Saudis over the course of the second half of the 19th century. In 1891 the Rashidis seized Riyadh, took control of Najd, and drove the Saudi family into exile in Kuwait. At the dawn of the 20th century, young Abdul Aziz ibn Saud began a campaign of reconquest, starting in 1902 with the recapture of Riyadh. From there, his forces captured the region of Al A;#7721;s;#257; in 1913, the Jebel Shammar in 1921, Mecca in 1924, Medina in 1925, and As#299;r in 1926. The core of Ibn Sauds military forces was made up of townsmen from Najd as well as a zealous force called the Ikhwan (brotherhood). The Ikhwan, former Bedouins who had taken up Abd al-Wahhabs cause, had a keen thirst for plunder and fought with a blazing ferocity. Ibn Saud proclaimed himself king of Al #7720;ij#257;z in 1926, and in 1932, after unifying the conquered territories, he renamed his vast realm Saudi Arabia. D Ibn Sauds Reign Saudi Arabia faced daunting challenges in the first years of Ibn Sauds reign: chronic lack of finances, political fragmentation, a tenuous security situation, little administrative capability, and a primitive economic base. Ibn Saud solidified his control by taking away the power and autonomy of Bedouin tribes, promoting members of his immediate family to positions of power, and marrying women from several different political constituencies to bring them into his family. Oil was discovered in eastern Saudi Arabia in 1938, but World War II disrupted trade and limited revenues from oil through the 1940s. Nevertheless, the gradual increase in funds from the 1950s onward permitted the initial development of the countrys infrastructure and basic social services (as well as lavish expenditures on palaces and other luxuries for the royal family). In foreign affairs, Ibn Saud strengthened relations with other states of the Middle East and adopted a friendly policy toward th e United States and the United Kingdom. A supporter of the Allied cause in World War II (1939-1945), he permitted construction of a U.S. air base in Dhahran but remained officially neutral until March 1945, when he declared war on Germany and Japan. In 1945 Saudi Arabia joined the United Nations (UN) and the newly founded Arab League, an association with the goal of promoting the interests of Arabic-speaking nations. Saudi Arabia opposed the creation of Israel but took only a minor part in the leagues war against the Jewish state in 1948 and 1949. In December 1950 a new agreement with the Arabian-American Oil Company (Aramco) provided that 50 percent of the companys net earnings should be paid to Saudi Arabia. Under this new agreement, Saudi oil revenues increased dramatically, and wealth poured into the kingdoms coffers. In June 1951 Saudi Arabia agreed to allow the United States to continue using the Dhahran air base in return for U.S. technical aid and permission to purchase arms under the Mutual Defense Assistance Act. E Turmoil at Home and Abroad The death of Ibn Saud in 1953 ushered in a period of serious internal political strife. Saud, the designated crown prince, took the throne, but his authority was challenged by Faisal and Talal, two of Ibn Sauds other sons. During his reign, Saud was criticized for fiscal irresponsibility and for episodes of labor unrest in the oil industry. Meanwhile, Faisal was largely responsible for the development of the governments bureaucracy. Also during Sauds reign, the first generation of Saudi technocrats who had been educated in the West returned to Saudi Arabia. They played an important part in the countrys subsequent development. In foreign affairs, Saud advocated Arab neutrality in the Cold War (ideological and geopolitical struggle between Western and Communist nations) and opposed the Middle Eastern Treaty Organization (METO), formed in 1955 by Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. Representatives from Saudi Arabia attended the Bandung Conference held by nonaligned nationsthose nations not allied with major world powersin April 1955, in Bandung, Indonesia. In October 1955 Saudi Arabia signed a mutual defense pact with Egypt. A joint Israeli, British, and French attack on Egypt followed Egypts nationalization of the Suez Canal in 1956 (see Suez Crisis). Saudi Arabia then severed diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom and France, and cut off oil supplies to their tankers. King Saud visited the United States in 1957. Shortly afterward it was announced that the United States would sell arms and supply other aid to Saudi Arabia in exchange for permission to use the Dhahran air base for another five years. Financial mismanagement brought on a crisis in 1958 in which Saud was forced to transfer legislative and executive powers, formerly included among his own absolute powers, to his brother Crown Prince Faisal, the prime minister. Saud reserved for himself the right of veto. A royal decree in 1958 established a cabinet system. Although Saud reclaimed control of the government in 1960, a family council supported by the ulama declared Faisal king in 1964. The Saudi government declined to renew the Dhahran lease in 1962, and U.S. requests for reestablishing military presence there were repeatedly turned aside until 1990. At a conference held in September 1960 in Baghd;#257;d, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Venezuela, and Kuwait founded the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to coordinate their policies and help sustain oil prices. A steady increase in oil revenues during Faisals reign permitted him to fund long-delayed projects of economic and social development. These were implemented through five-year plans, the first of which covered the period from 1970 to 1975. During this time, the government poured money into the improvement of transportation, utilities, education, and health care. Saudi relations with Egypt deteriorated during the 1960s. In 1962 a revolution in Yemen overthrew Yemens imam. Saudi Arabia supported Yemens deposed leader in his efforts to regain his throne, while Egypt gave military support to Yemens new republican government. F Arab-Israeli Conflicts In 1967, as the Arab-Israeli conflict intensified prior to the Six-Day War, King Faisal expressed full support for Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser and dispatched 20,000 troops to Jordan to face Israeli forces. In June all Saudi oil exports to Britain and the United States were suspended, but diplomatic ties were not broken; oil trade was resumed after the Arab defeat. An Arab summit conference later in the year resulted in Egyptian withdrawal from Yemen, and the Saudis extended large-scale aid to Egypt to compensate for the loss of revenue caused by the closing of the Suez Canal during the war. King Faisal continued to call for pan-Islamic action against Israel and, under internal pressures, cr iticized alleged United States involvement on Israels side. He remained unwilling, however, to articulate a militant anti-Western position, and in 1971 Saudi Arabia and five other Persian Gulf states concluded a five-year pact with 23 Western oil companies, including 17 U.S. firms. In July 1970 Saudi Arabia formally recognized the republican government of Yemen after seven years of intermittent border fighting. Saudi Arabia sent a small number of troops and weapons (notably aircraft) to aid the Arab states in the Arab-Israeli War of 1973. In the aftermath of this conflict, the government played a leading role in organizing a short-term oil embargo against countries that had supported Israel and in quadrupling the international price of petroleum. The latter development, along with Saudi Arabias 1974 takeover of controlling interest in the huge oil company Aramco, greatly increased government revenue, thus providing funds for another massive economic development plan. G Financial Strength and Military Preparedness In March 1975 King Faisal was assassinated by a nephew and was succeeded by his half brother Prince Khalid ibn Abdul Aziz. Khalid, however, was in poor health and his half brother, Crown Prince Fahd, became the power behind the throne. The country remained conservative, and its influence kept OPEC from raising its prices to the extent most member countries wanted. In 1980 it was announced that the Saudi government had taken full control of Aramcos assets retroactively from January 1976. Much of the petroleum money that poured into the country was reinvested in the West or spent on arms, but domestic inflation and a barely manageable pace of development presented ongoing problems. Saudi Arabia took a dim view of the conciliatory overtures by Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat to Israel in 1977, and after the signing of a peace treaty between the two countries in 1979, Saudi Arabia cut off financial aid to Egypt and severed diplomatic relations. The Islamic revolution in Iran that year and the subsequent seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca by some 250 armed Islamists jolted the Saudi government, heightening awareness of its vulnerability to external and internal threats. The kingdom joined five other Arab Gulf states in 1981 to establish the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which focused on economic and collective security measures. Shared concerns about regional stability helped warm relations between Saudi Arabia and the United States. In 1981 the United States agreed to sell several Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) planes to the Saudis, an arrangement that provoked heavy opposition from Israel, which feared an upset of the military balance in the M iddle East. King Khalid died in June 1982 and was succeeded by Fahd. As king, Fahd sought to maintain Saudi Arabias traditional Islamic values, while continuing the process of rapid modernization made possible by the nations abundant oil resources. In 1986 he assumed the religious title Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques in an effort to safeguard the Western-friendly Saudi regime from opposition by Islamic militants. Nevertheless, King Fahd faced difficulties within and beyond his country. In July 1987 at least 400 people were killed in Mecca when Iranian Shia pilgrims clashed with Saudi police. Relations between Iran and Saudi Arabia became increasingly hostile. Iran expressed its displeasure at Saudi restrictions on Iranian pilgrims by boycotting the hajj for several years. Relations between the countries began to thaw gradually in the 1990s. H Persian Gulf War and Developments in the 1990s Iraqs takeover of Kuwait in August 1990 had significant military, political, and economic consequences for Saudi Arabia. Despite opposition from some religious leaders and their followers, the Saudi government provided for temporary deployment on its own territory of hundreds of thousands of U.S. and allied troops. It also contributed forces to the multinational coalition that fought Iraq in the Persian Gulf War in early 1991. In order to allay some of the domestic opposition to non-Muslim forces stationed in Islams holy land, the Saudi government emphasized that several other Islamic countries had also sent forces to fight Iraq. Through the late 1990s Saudi Arabia allowed some U.S. forces to remain in the country, mainly to enforce so-called no-fly zones over southern Iraq. Religious opposition groups viewed the continued U.S. presence as a major point of contention with the government. After the Persian Gulf War, Saudi Arabia increased its oil output to compensate for the loss of petroleum supplies from Iraq and Kuwait. Economic problems became evident, however, in 1993. The United States had insisted that Saudi Arabia pay for the costs of U.S. military protection during the war, costing the country $51 billion. Meanwhile, the Saudi economy was feeling the effects of a budget operating under deficit since 1983. War payments and declining oil prices forced the Saudi government to cut social and defense spending and take out loans from international banks. Despite these problems, in 1994 Saudi Arabia helped defeat a campaign by Iran and other OPEC member countries to lower OPECs overall production ceiling so that limited supply would prompt a rise in prices. As oil prices continued to fall in the late 1990s, Saudi Arabia reversed its position and led an initiative for OPEC to reduce production in order to raise the price of oil. In March 1999 OPEC, along with four in dependent oil-producing nations, approved a yearlong production cutback. Saudi Arabia committed to the largest cutback, reducing production by 7 percent. Political reforms decreed by King Fahd in 1992 established a consultative council to serve in an advisory capacity, provided for a bill of rights, and changed the rules of succession. The Consultative Council (Majlis al-Shura) was convened for the first time in December 1993. Social reforms were less evident, however. Saudi men and women still were not permitted to attend public events together, and workplaces remained segregated. Government officials in the United States voiced continuing concern about human rights violations in Saudi Arabia, particularly the abuse of prisoners by guards and police. King Fahd remained an active sponsor of Islamic causes worldwide in his second decade as Saudi leader. In 1992 he conducted an extensive campaign to end the bloodshed in the former Yugoslav republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The same year, Fahds government established diplomatic links with the Muslim republics formerly included in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. In 1994 Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasir Arafat visited Riyadh to discuss with King Fahd the prospects for peace in the Middle East. The meeting represented a significant rapprochement between the two leaders, whose relations had been strained since the Persian Gulf War. In 1995 the governments of Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to negotiate a settlement to a long-standing dispute over their shared border; the agreement followed several months of small-scale fighting in the border region. Five years later, in 2000, the two countries finally announced an agreeme nt settling the border dispute. Meanwhile, in 1998

Friday, May 1, 2020

Digital Forensic for Computer Crimes †

Question: Discuss about theDigital Forensic for Computer Crimes. Answer: Introduction Computer Crimes Crime is conduct that when done affects another party disadvantageously and could lead to punishment when the prosecution is undertaken. In concern to computer crimes, there exists a difficulty that comes up during the trial. The computer crimes or digital crimes make it a habit of not breaking some of the laws put down in the enforcement. The laws existing in the judiciary are not that advance to issue punishment to these offenders if not followed critically. With this in mind, the judicial proceedings put in ideas from the traditional prosecution systems. Some of the ways that this method is applied is in relation to some criminal offenses that include burglary and fraud. These crimes, when analyzed properly, can provide the means to coming up with judgment on digital crimes. In spite of the application of traditional criminal laws, the technology in computers is also developing. The computers are becoming more advanced in hiding information and tracing their uses even more challen ging(Daniel, 2012). Findings Criminal Law In this branch of law, the crime committed is viewed as interference to the normal proceedings of the society. Whenever one is said to have committed a crime, the judicial decisions could lead to a jail term. The guilty party is forced to take time for rehabilitation. Another end game is the provision of probation to the guilty party. This act is known to give verdicts that punish severely. The severe punishment is to make the offender learn from the mistakes done to prevent the future happening of the same crime. The decisions also lead to disciplining of law breakers(Andrew Jones, 2011). The suspect under scrutiny first needs to be proven guilty or innocent. This scrutiny is done by a jury in court. The jury has to see the offender as guilty without any doubt for the verdict to be guilty. To make the jury believe the evidence and come with a guilty verdict, the prosecutor employs the use of testifying individuals(Garrison, 2010). These testifications should be able to link the law breaker to the crime directly. In spite of the window of nailing criminals using proving parties, the offender can also get away scot free. In criminal law. The crime is grouped into two. These groupings include the felonies and the misdemeanors. Felony crimes are crimes that lead to serving jail terms. The crimes are punished severely. Also, the misdemeanors are the next category that only result in fining or serving of prison terms less than a year. Civil Law The public law defines crime as offense done to persons or businesses. This battery commonly makes losses or can lead to damage the involved parties. The public code also lacks the jail term decision from the jury in court. This law leads to financial security to the one who is affected by the crime. This is the primary purpose of the bill(Garrison, 2010). Financial securities in the civil law refer to damage compensation, punitive damages, even legal costs. The cases in this bill take less time to convict. This is due to the lesser burden during the gathering and proving of evidence when prosecuting. The prosecutor needs to make the jury believe in the testimony against the offender. A search warrant is also issued in this bill allowing seizing of proof. Insurance Insurance policies have been put in place to transfer risk in businesses conducted between parties to a lesser appreciable loss level. In computers, there could be a loss of data. The data lost in computer storage systems means loss of information which needs to be compensated. Hence an insurance policy steps in to demand the company that issued the agreement to pay up the loss. In some cases, the company that got issued the insurance policy may try to track the source of the data loss. In the process, there is an increase of loss during this time. The insurance states that the added loss incurred will have to be paid the concerned company. Rule of Evidence During investigations, the provision of proof kicks in. The investigation has to be thorough also the proceedings have to satisfy this law. In digital crimes. The tracing of the offense in the computer is proving to be cumbersome. The offenders are improving in the skills whenever they cause crimes. They cover their traces carefully thereby requiring the investigating committee also to have skilled trackers in computer technology(Gogolin, 2012). The investigators have to be able to identify together with existing the data in suspect computers. In addition to that, the traditional way of prosecuting suspects is by the provision of concrete evince. The evidence present in computer crimes are mostly intangible. Making it difficult to convict. Best Evidence Rule In the best evidence rule, the jury needs to be present with only original proof of the crime committed. The law disallows presentation of copies of evidence. The rule has therefore been amended to allow slight changes to this statement. The amendments have allowed usage of copies of in particular cases that include; Evidence loss that has been caused by an act of God. The acts of God include earthquakes, floods and much The normal conducting of business could also lead to loss of original copies. The presence of another party that even with issued warranty cannot be lead to them producing the original copies. Exclusionary Rule The exclusionary rule puts forward the idea of being in possession of incriminating evidence through the use of law enforcing party that legally follows the procedures. The legal proceedings are the one that directs the methods of obtaining evidence. Whenever the exclusionary rule is not adhered to, the proof of the crime is said to be fruits of the poisonous tree(Garrison, 2010). Hearsay Rule When an evidence e is provided as hearsay, the person issuing the evidence does not have a first hand relation to the crime(Robert E. Taylor, 2014). Another individual is the one who provides the source of the incriminating piece. The prosecution, therefore, lies in the hands of the legibility of the source. The competence of the second-party is a critical consideration in the hearsay rule(Gogolin, 2012). Chain of Evidence The investigation in crime leads prosecutors obtaining evidence. The evidence afterward needs to be secured properly and be tracked whenever logged to different persons. The accountability of the evidence brings about the chain of proof where the evidence is confiscated, secured and be put under control(Sammons, 2012). Admissibility of Evidence Digital crimes can be admissible. The level of eligibility is high due to the ease of tampering with the data. The evidence can easily be hacked can easily be lost due to short-circuited instruments or being close to magnet proximity. The judicial proceedings hence come up with an idea of providing evidence relevance and the reliability of the laws(Daniel, 2012). The Process of Investigation Examination process has to be prepared before execution. The following proceedings are the pre-investigation ways for undertaking scrutiny(Head of Department of Crime Policing Studies and Academic Director Robin Bryant, 2016). Identification of system that has been seized The digital crime targets computers and hence the infected computer need to be scrutinized to extract as much data as possible. The extraction puts together both the hardware specifications of and the software present in them(Sammons, 2012). Getting a warrant required and issuing it. Whenever a suspect is suspected of being in possession of evidence that relates to the crime committed, a warrant is the only way to obtain the evidence legally. The warrant is only issued if the investigator gives lots of reason for such a search. Once the permit is in place, the researcher, confiscation of the incriminating details possessed by the suspect is possible(Gilbert Peterson, 2009). Identifying a search team that will properly conduct an investigation. Before the inquiry begins, the law enforcing individuals should be able to hold a warrant, and the members need to be competent. The competency is assured by developing a team that consists of a lead investigator, some information security members, a department that is legal and some technical assistance(Daniel, 2012). Execution of Investigation The deployment t of security around the site Sketching and taking photographs of the site Identifying, marking and further packing the incriminating data. This collection needs to adhere to the rule of evidence. When the third step begins, and the computer is found to be on, the investigator has to take a video that records by use of scrolling effect(Cruz-Cunha, 2014). Also, taking photographs adds to the accountability. After making the video, the computer is good to be shut down bearing in consideration of a logical mainframe shutdown. One way that eases the tiresome conducting of this step is by conduction of the investigation of on the premise that crime was committed. Getting access to the surveillance system of the suspect. Deeply looking at the evidence obtained. Forensic Tools used in Investigation There are some survey tools pens that can be used in digital crime investigation. The tools applied in the investigation intended t obtain incriminating evidence in the related area of expertise(Lilley, 2002). The computer can be analyzed. Tha analysis is done in its network traffic. In the network analysis, the sniffer tool is applicable. A sniffer tool that may be Wireshark, intercepts any network traffic to produce logs that are noted down for more review. Another tool that is applied in the digital crime prosecution is NetworkMiner. networkMiner extracts and recovers all documents in a computer affected. In cases where real-time surveillance is required, Sort tool is best. The tool is at its best when tracking down offenders(Daniel, 2012). Annalysis Conducted Reporting Digital crimes are committed almost every time. The act, however, will not assure arrest as the result or clearance of the offender(Panagiotis Kanellis, 2006). The police have to secure the evidence that prosecution required for jury decision. The confiscated evidence is then presented to the jury that determines the fate of the one who committed the crime. Along the way, difficulties arise. Problems in investigation such mess in accountability and handling of incriminating documents(Gilbert Peterson, 2009). The research is about the use of evidence categories in coming up with ways of convicting digital criminals. The groups include hearsay rule. After reporting the crime, a test can be done to determine the admissibility(Barrett, 1997). A Frye test is the way forward in the determination. The results acquired are used in the NIST tools that scientifically establish the validity of the accusations. Finally, the party accused is provided the duplicate of the charges. Another alternative way of alerting the defense is by giving them access to see the allegations(Casey, 2009). All in all, the reporting procedure aims at identification any fact that is relating to the crime at hand. The report should be able to give an investigative format of accounting of specific incidences of digital crime. More to it is the possibility of discrepancies that may be instigated by witness statements. The report characteristics include as shown below(Daniel, 2012); Well organized documentation of the incident description of the act. Should contain all the statements provided y the witnesses Should be able to reference all the evidentiary articles. Should have a forensic analysis that describes the investigation. There needs to be some conclusion. The conclusion has to have come from the stated facts. Noe of the opinions from the investigator is included in the report. The report provided by the prosecutor must also be handed to the defense. Legal Proceedings in Digital Crime(Sammons, 2012) Discovery and protection orders Here, the case is presented the report of the investigation and witness list. The step only omits the method of presenting the evidence in court for prosecution. However, the copy submitted to the judicial proceedings can be limited. The court can restrict the access of the documents in court. Allowing secretive holding of sensitive documents. Grand jury hearing and preliminary hearings. The affected company will have to choose a law enforcer such as a prosecutor to take them through the court trials. The trial Tests can take a while to be scheduled due to the back to back backlog routine of the court. Here the criminal and civil law are conducted and can be run parallel. Damage recovery If any party intends to recover losses incurred then the public law comes in handy. Review of Postmortem The preventive measure for breach leading to the crime is examined. The security plans are laid down to make a response plan, policy of planning, monitoring of electrical systems and developing warning banner against unauthorized access. Conclusion Computer crime is a type of art that needs planning. The planning helps in its execution and in turn its investigation also needs planning. During investigation, the major responsibility is to get the nature and the size of damage to the affected system after which digital forensic kicks in. the investigations therefore need to be deeply conducted to understand how to detect, solve and prevent future crime. Thereby, the investigator needs to have a good understanding of the law(Daniel, 2012). References Andrew Jones, C. V. (2011). Building a Digital Forensic Laboratory: Establishing and Managing a Successful Facility. Denver: Butterworth-Heinemann. Barrett, N. (1997). Digital Crime: Policing the Cybernation. atlanta: Kogan Page. Casey, E. (2009). Handbook of Digital Forensics and Investigation. Chicago: Academic Press. Cory Altheide, H. C. (2011). Digital Forensics with Open Source Tools. Philadelphia: Elsevier. Cruz-Cunha, M. M. (2014). Handbook of Research on Digital Crime, Cyberspace Security, and Information Assurance. New York City: IGI Global. Daniel, L. E. (2012). Digital Forensics for Legal Professionals: Understanding Digital Evidence from the Warrant to the Courtroom. Chicago: Elsevier. Garrison, C. P. (2010). Digital Forensics for Network, Internet, and Cloud Computing: A Forensic Evidence Guide for Moving Targets and Data. washington DC: Syngress. Gilbert Peterson, S. S. (2009). Advances in Digital Forensics V: Fifth IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, Orlando, Florida, USA, January 26-28, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Wiscosin: Springer. Gogolin, G. (2012). Digital Forensics Explained. New York: CRC Press. Head of Department of Crime Policing Studies and Academic Director Robin Bryant, R. B. (2016). Policing Digital Crime. Washington DC: Routledge. Jahankhani, H. (2010 ). Handbook of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics. Chicago: World Scientific. Lilley, P. (2002). Hacked, Attacked Abused: Digital Crime Exposed. Denver: Kogan Page Publishers. Panagiotis Kanellis, E. K. (2006). Digital Crime and Forensic Science in Cyberspace. Chicago: Idea Group Inc (IGI). Robert E. Taylor, R. W. (2014). Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism. Denver: Pearson Education. Sammons, J. (2012). The Basics of Digital Forensics: The Primer for Getting Started in Digital Forensics. Atlanta: Elsevier. Wiles, J. (2011). TechnoSecurity's Guide to E-Discovery and Digital Forensics: A Comprehensive Handbook. New York City: Elsevier.